Health project









Country Profile




National Commission

Action Plan


Events Calendar



Healthy Aging



ITCOA Training Center


 L L I
























World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision

Read Press Release with Key Findings March 9, 2009

World Population to exceed 9 Billuon by 2050
Developing Countries to add 2.3 Billion Inhabitants with 1.1 Billion Aged over 60
and 1.2 Billion of Working Age



Read Selected Tables
Population of the World, Major Development Groups and Major Areas 1950, 1975, 2009 and 2050 according to different variants



View Data Online (United Nations Population Division)
World population Prospects: The 2008 Revision Population Database



Key findings with regard to population ageing:
Slow population growth brought about by reductions in fertility leads to population ageing, that is, it produces populations where the proportion of older persons increases while that of younger persons decreases. In the more developed regions, 22 per cent of population is already aged 60 years or over and that proportion is projected to reach 33 per cent in 2050. In developed countries as a whole, the number of older persons has already surpassed the number of children (persons under age 15), and by 2050 the number of older persons in developed countries will be more than twice the number of children.
Population ageing is less advanced in developing countries. Nevertheless, the populations of a majority of them are poised to enter a period of rapid population ageing. In developing countries as a whole, just 9 per cent of the population is today aged 60 years or over but that proportion will more than double by 2050, reaching 20 per cent that year.
Globally, the number of persons aged 60 or over is expected almost to triple, increasing from 739 million in 2009 to 2 billion by 2050. Furthermore, already 65 per cent of the world's older persons live in the less developed regions and by 2050, 79 per cent will do so.
In ageing populations, the numbers of persons with older ages grow faster the higher the age range considered. Thus, whereas the number of persons aged 60 or over is expected to triple, that of persons aged 80 or over (the oldest-old) is projected to increase four-fold, to reach 395 million in 2050. Today, just about half of the oldest-old live in developing countries but that share is expected to reach 69 per cent in 2050.
Although the population of all countries is expected to age over the foreseeable future, the population will remain relatively young in countries where fertility is still high, many of which are experiencing very rapid population growth. High population growth rates prevail in many developing countries, most of which are least developed. Between 2010 and 2050, the populations of 31 countries, the majority of which are least developed, will double or more. Among them, the populations of Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Niger, Somalia, Timor-Leste and Uganda are projected to increase by 150 per cent or more.
In sharp contrast, the populations of 45 countries or areas are expected to decrease between 2010 and 2050. These countries include Belarus, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cuba, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, the Republic of Korea, Romania, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, all of which are expected to see their populations decline by at least 10 per cent by 2050.

Indonesia - Quick facts

Population Pyramid Summary for Indonesia

Quick Facts

Total Population (in millions) - 234.8
Rank by Population - 5th

Men Women
Life expectancy at birth (in years) 66.5 71.4
Median Age 25.4 26.2
Total Fertility Rate 2.5 children born/woman
Percentage of Population Aged 60+ 7 9
Percentage of 60+ Population in Labour Force 59 32
Statutory Retirement Age 55 55

Sources: CIA World Factbook 2008


234,693,997 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 28.74% (male 34,309.176; female 33,148.341)
15-64 years: 65.6% (male 77,132,7087; female 76,731,481)
65 years and over: 5.7% (male 5,956,471; female 7,415,820) (2007 est.)

Median age:

total: 26.9 years
male: 26.4 years
female: 27.4 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate:

1.213% (2007 est.)

Birth rate:

19.651 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate:

6.256 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate:

-1.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.035 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.005 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.803 male(s)/female
total population: 1.001 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 32.14 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 37.39 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 26.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 70.16 years
male: 67.69 years
female: 72.76 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate:

2.387 children born/woman (2007 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.1% (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

110,000 (2003 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

2,400 (2003 est.)



Ethnic groups:

Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9% (2000 census)


Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%,
Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census)


Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects ( the most widely spoken of which is Javanese)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.4%
male: 94%
female: 86.8% (2004 est.)







2008 World Population Data Sheet

World Population Highlights - Key Findings

Webcast 2008 World Population Datasheet

World Mortality 2007

Population Aging and Economic Growth

Wall Chart World Mortality 2007

Aging Population

World Population Ageing 2007







The 2007 edition of World Population Ageing presents trhe current assessment of the status of the world's older population and prospects for the future. It updates and expands a previous report released in 2002 at the time of the Second World Assembly on Ageing.
The report provides a descripption of global trends in population ageing and includes key indicators of the ageing process for each of the major areas, regions and countries of ther world.
Data are taken mainly from the 2004 Revision of the official United Nations world population estimates and projections. Other sources include different United Nations organizations, the United States Social Sercurity Administration and recent United Nations publications.






World Health Organization - Ageing and Life Course


Is Asia prepared for an Aging Population

Related to: China, India, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand


Population Momentum and Population Ageing
in Asia and Near-East countries

Related to Indonesia



Expert Group meeting on the Regional preparations for the
Global Review of madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing

March 27, 2007

Prepared by
Ms Eva A.J. Sabdono, Executive Director

Yayasan Emong Lansia



Preparing for an Aging World

The world's population is aging at an accelerated rate. Declining fertility rates combined with steady improvements in life expectancy over the latter half of the 20th century have produced dramatic growth in the world's elderly population. People aged 65 and over now comprise a greater share of the world's population than ever before, and this proportion will increase during the 21st century. This trend has immense implications for many countries around the globe because of its potential to overburden existing social institutions for the elderly. One popular view envisions global aging as a looming catastrophe, as populations top-heavy with frail, retired elderly drain pension and social security funds, overwhelm health care systems, and rely for support on a dwindling working-age population.

Preparing for an Aging World: The Case for Cross-National Research (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 2001), a panel of experts convened by the National Research Council (NRC), part of the National Academy of Sciences, examines the issues surrounding global aging and their implications for policy and research. The report rejects alarmist as well as complacent views of global aging. Though aging trends raise difficult issues, the report concludes there is no crisis. Aging is gradual and its consequences tend to appear gradually and predictably. Thus policymakers have time to deal with these issues before they become acute problems. Furthermore, because aging is at different stages around the world, there are opportunities for nations to learn from each other's experiences. Taking advantage of these opportunities will require cross-national planning and coordination of research and data collection.


Population aging refers to an increase in the percentage of elderly people (65 and older). The number of elderly increased more than threefold since 1950, from approximately 130 million (about 4 percent of global population) to 419 million (6.9 percent) in 2000. The number of elderly is now increasing by 8 million per year; by 2030, this increase will reach 24 million per year. The most rapid acceleration in aging will occur after 2010, when the large post­World War II baby boom cohorts begin to reach age 65.

The elderly population itself is also growing older. The "oldest old" (80 and older) population is the fastest-growing group among the elderly. Levels of illness and disability among this group far exceed those for other age groups, and thus the needs of this group are likely to increase substantially in the 21st century.

In 2000, Italy was the world's "oldest" nation, with more than 18 percent of its population aged 65 and over (compared with 8 percent in 1950). Also with notably high levels (above 17 percent) were Sweden, Belgium, Greece, and Japan.

Among the world's regions, Europe has the highest proportion of population aged 65 and over and should remain the global leader in this category well into the 21st century. However, other regions of the world will begin to age much more rapidly in coming decades: The percentage of those aged 65 and older in Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Near East/North Africa will more than triple by 2050 (see figure on next page).


These shifts in global age structure highlight several areas in which policymakers need a clearer understanding of aging's effects and the impacts of alternative policies. These areas include the following:

Work, Retirement, and Pensions

Global Aging, 2000 - 2050 Percentage of Elderly by Region Table

Global Aging, 2000 - 2050:
Percentage of Elderly by Region

One of the most dramatic developments of the past 40 years has been declining labor force participation among older people in many parts of the world. Public pension plans in some countries have created incentives for older workers to retire, thus exacerbating the financial problems posed by aging populations. There has also been a shift in many countries from pay-as-you-go retirement programs to fully funded ones, as well as a shift toward private programs. It is important to disentangle incentives for leaving the workforce, as well as to ensure a closer alignment between public and private pension programs. For many developing nations that are now designing pension programs that have public as well as private components, there are opportunities to learn from more-developed nations' experiences.

Private Wealth and Income Security

The need for income security during retirement--now an increasingly lengthy and important segment of life for many--is an important concern in developed societies. Providing income security has raised two critical policy challenges: (1) ensuring that individuals have sufficient income during retirement to avoid a sharp decline in living standards and (2) ensuring that elderly people are sheltered from financial risks. Policymakers need better data on the economic behavior of elderly populations, such as whether they continue to save or begin to "dissave."

Transfer Systems

The well-being of older persons often depends on intricate systems of pecuniary and non-pecuniary transfers associated with individual savings, family behavior, and, as in the case of many social security systems, transfers from current workers to retired persons. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding these transfer systems, gaps in our understanding remain. Particularly in need of study are interrelationships across systems and a clearer picture of how changes in one system (such as public pensions) affect others. For instance, do publicly funded programs crowd out private-sector or family-based transfers?


The health of elderly populations is a critical issue and influences outcomes in all of the other policy areas affected by aging. Evidence shows that disability is declining across countries, which would suggest that more elderly people are leading longer and healthier lives. While all countries must address the changing health needs of older citizens, the diversity of national health care systems points to the value of comparable cross-national data on health care quality and outcomes, which to date have largely been lacking.


Overarching the financial and health status of older populations is the issue of their well-being and quality of life--not simply in later years but from birth to death. Our understanding of this issue would benefit from measures of subjective well-being that are sensitive to changes in well-being during major life transitions, such as retirement.


To address these gaps, the NRC panel recommended that nations coordinate data collection and research in order to leverage resources and benefit from nations' collective experience. Specifically, the panel identified several activities for pursuing an effective research agenda on aging:

  • Develop multidisciplinary research designs to produce data on aging populations that can most effectively inform policy choices.

  • Conduct longitudinal research to illuminate the long-term interrelationships among work, health, economic status, and family structure.

  • Establish mechanisms that will help to harmonize and standardize data collected in different countries.

  • Emphasize the critical importance of cross-national research, organized as a cooperative venture that will enhance the ability of policymakers to evaluate institutional and programmatic features of aging policy.

  • Consolidate information from multiple sources to generate linked databases.

  • Create unhindered access to relevant data for the widest possible community of scientists.


    The report emphasizes that the full effects of global aging are still decades away. Therefore nations have time to develop and use research tools to guide future policies. However, considerable lead time will be required to collect and interpret the kinds of data scientists need to understand the ramifications of aging. Nations need to act promptly to develop strategies for generating policy- relevant information to guide policymaking and to avoid the potential for a global "aging" crisis.

    RB-5058 (2001)

    RAND policy briefs summarize research that has been more fully documented elsewhere. Unlike most RAND policy briefs, this brief describes work conducted outside RAND, in this case by the National Research Council (NRC), and documented in Preparing for an Aging World: The Case for Cross-National Research, ISBN: 0-309-07421-5 (pb). Copies of the NRC report are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20418, or at The NRC study was funded by the Behavioral and Social Research Program of the National Institute on Aging. If you would like a copy of a CD-ROM that contains the full text of the NRC report Preparing for an Aging World: The Case for Cross-National Research, as well as 11 other reports that the NRC has prepared for the National Institute on Aging, please contact the Behavioral and Social Sciences Program, National Institute on Aging, 7201 Wisconsin Avenue, Room 533, Bethesda, MD 20892.

    As part of its mission to synthesize and disseminate important population-related research, RAND's Population Matters program produced this policy brief in consultation with the NRC. Population Matters is sponsored by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the United Nations Population Fund. Population Matters publications and other project information are available at This research brief is also available in printed form.

    RAND publications are available from RAND Distribution Services (Telephone: 310-451-7002, or toll free 877-584-8642; Fax: 310-451-6915; E-mail: [email protected]; or the Web:

    RAND® is a registered trademark. RAND is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis; its publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions or policies of its research sponsors.

    Source: Rand Corp



Quick Facts
Total Population (in millions) 234,693,997
Rank by population 5




2007 est





Population (thousands) July





Annual growth rate (percentage)





Crude birth rate (per 1,000)





Crude death rate (1,000)





Total fertility rate (per woman)





Age-specific fertility rate ages 15-19 (per 1,000)





Contraceptive prevalence rate (percentage), all methods





Contraceptive prevalence rate (percentage), modern methods





Life expectancy at birth (years), Males





Life expectancy at birth (years), Females





Infant mortality rate (per 1,000)





Mortality under age 5 (per 1,000)





Percentage aged, 0-14





Percentage aged, 15-64





Percentage aged, 65+





Urban population, percentage urban (2004)





Urban population, annual growth rate (percentage)





Ratio of girls to boys, secondary education (percentage), Early





Ratio of girls to boys, secondary education (percentage), Late 1





Adults (15-49) living with HIV/AIDS (end 2001), Number





Adults (15-49) living with HIV/AIDS (end 2001), Percentage





GDP per capita (US$) (2001)





Population projected to 2025 (thousands)




Sources: CIA World Factbook(2007); United Nations Population Division, DESA(2006); WHO "The World Health Report 2007", WHO "World Health Report 2006: NHA Ratios and Per Capital Levels (2004)"




Useful links

Map and Quick Facts

Indo Streets

 Indonesian Bureau of Statistics (BPS)

US Census Bureau - International Database

Population and Poverty in Indonesia ( UN ESCAP)

 Ageing Trends and Policy Responses in the ESCAP Region